Periodic Labour Force Survey

Periodic Labour Force Survey

Why in news?

Recently, the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation has released the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) Report from July 2018 to June 2019.

  • This is the second Annual Report being brought out by National Statistical Office (NSO) on the basis of Periodic Labour Force Survey conducted during July 2018-June 2019.

Key Findings of the Report

Household and Population

  • During 2018-19, about 51.7 per cent of rural households had major source of income from self-employment. The share of rural households with major source of income from casual labour during 2018-19 was 25.1 per cent and that of regular wage/salary earning was 13.1 per cent.
  • In urban areas, about 31.8 per cent of the households had major source of income from self-employment during 2018-19. The share of urban households with major source of income from regular wage/salary earning was 42.8 per cent and that of casual labour was nearly 11.0 per cent.
  • In India, literacy rate (among persons of age 7 years and above) during 2018-19 was 78.1 per cent.
  • Literacy rate in both rural and urban areas was higher among males than females: in rural areas, literacy rate was 81.9 per cent among males compared to 65.7 per cent among females and in urban areas, literacy rate was 91.9 per cent among males compared to 82.6 per cent among females.

Labour Force in usual status (ps+ss)

  • About 55.1 per cent of the rural males19.7 per cent of the rural females56.7 per cent of the urban males and 16.1 per cent of the urban females were in the labour force.
  • Among persons of age 15-29 years, LFPR in India was 38.1 per cent: it was 37.8 per cent in rural areas and 38.7 per cent in urban areas.
  • Among persons of age 15 years and above, LFPR in India was 50.2 per cent: it was 51.5 per cent in rural areas and 47.5 per cent in urban areas.

Workforce

Worker Population Ratio (WPR) in usual status (ps+ss)

  • The Worker Population Ratio (WPR) was about 35.3 per cent at the all-India level. It was about 35.8 per cent in rural areas and 34.1 per cent in urban areas
  • The WPR was 52.1 per cent for rural males, 19.0 per cent for rural females, 52.7 per cent for urban males and 14.5 per cent for urban females.
  • Among persons of age 15-29 years, WPR in India was 31.5 per cent: it was 31.7 per cent in rural areas and 30.9 per cent in urban areas.
  • Among persons of age 15 years and above, WPR in India was 47.3 per cent: it was 48.9 per cent in rural areas and 43.9 per cent in urban areas.

Status in employment among workers in usual status (ps+ss)

  • Share of self-employed among workers in India was about 57.4 per cent among rural males, 59.6 per cent among rural females, 38.7 per cent among urban males and 34.5 per cent among urban females.
  • Among workers, about 14.2 per cent among rural males, 11.0 per cent among rural females, 47.2 per cent among urban males and 54.7 per cent among urban females were regular wage/ salaried employees.
  • The proportion of casual labour among workers in India was about 28.3 per cent among rural males, 29.3 per cent among rural females, 14.2 per cent among urban males and 10.3 per cent among urban females.

Industry of work of the workers in usual status (ps+ss)

  • In rural areas, during 2018-19, about 53.2 per cent of the male workers and 71.1 per cent of the female workers were engaged in the agricultural sector. The proportions of male and female workers in rural areas engaged in ‘construction’ sector were 15.4 per cent and 6.0 per cent respectively. The proportions of male and female workers in rural areas engaged in ‘manufacturing’ sector were 7.3 per cent and 9.0 per cent respectively.
  • In urban India, during 2018-19, among male workers, the industry sector, ‘trade, hotel and restaurant’ sector engaged about 25.2 per cent while ‘manufacturing’ and ‘other services’ sectors accounted for about 21.9 per cent and 22.3 per cent, respectively.
  • Among female workers in the urban, ‘other services’ sector (other than ‘trade, hotel & restaurant’ and ‘transport, storage & communications’) shared the highest proportion of workers (45.6 per cent), followed by ‘manufacturing’ (24.5 per cent) and ‘trade, hotel and restaurant’ (13.8 per cent).

Informal sector and conditions of employment of the workers in usual status (ps+ss)

  • In India, 68.4 per cent of the workers in non-agriculture sector were engaged in informal sector. The share of informal sector among male workers was 71.5 per cent and among female workers was nearly 54.1 per cent in non-agriculture.
  • In India, among regular wage/salaried employees in the non-agriculture sector, 69.5 per cent had no written job contract: 70.3 per cent among males and 66.5 per cent among females.
  • In India, among regular wage/salaried employees in the non-agriculture sector, 53.8 per cent were not eligible for paid leave: 54.7 per cent among males and 50.6 per cent among females.
  • In India, among regular wage/salaried employees in the non-agriculture sector, 51.9 per cent were not eligible for any social security benefit: 51.2 per cent among males and 54.4 per cent among females.

Unemployment Rate in usual status (ps+ss)

  • Unemployment rate in India was 5.8 per cent. It was 5.6 per cent among males and 3.5 per cent among females in rural areas, while the rates were 7.1 per cent among males and 9.9 per cent among females in urban areas.
  • For educated (highest level of education secondary and above) persons of age 15 years and above, unemployment rate in India was 11.0 per cent: 11.2 per cent in rural areas and 10.8 per cent in urban areas.
  • The unemployment rate among the rural male youth (persons of age 15-29 years) was 16.6 per cent while the unemployment rate among the rural female youth was 13.8 per cent during 2018-19. The unemployment rate among the urban male youth was 18.7 per cent in 2017-18 while the unemployment rate for urban female youth was 25.7 per cent during this period.

About Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS)

  • The National Statistical Office (NSO) launched Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) in April 2017.
  • The objectives of PLFS is primarily twofold:
    • to estimate the key employment and unemployment indicators (viz. Worker Population Ratio, Labour Force Participation Rate, Unemployment Rate) in the short time interval of three months for the urban areas only in the Current Weekly Status (CWS)
    • to estimate employment and unemployment indicators in both usual status (ps+ss) and CWS in both rural and urban areas annually.
  • The first Annual Report (July 2017- June 2018) covering both rural and urban areas giving estimates of all important parameters of employment and unemployment in both usual status (ps+ss) and current weekly status (CWS) was released in May 2019.
  • It gives estimates of Key employment and unemployment Indicators like the Labour Force Participation Rates (LFPR), Worker Population Ratio (WPR), Unemployment Rate (UR), etc.
  • Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR): LFPR is defined as the percentage of persons in labour force (i.e. working or seeking or available for work) in the population.
  • Worker Population Ratio (WPR): WPR is defined as the percentage of employed persons in the population.
  • Unemployment Rate (UR): UR is defined as the percentage of persons unemployed among the persons in the labour force.
  • Activity Status- Usual Status: The activity status of a person is determined on the basis of the activities pursued by the person during the specified reference period. When the activity status is determined on the basis of the reference period of last 365 days preceding the date of survey, it is known as the usual activity status of the person.
  • Activity Status- Current Weekly Status (CWS): The activity status determined on the basis of a reference period of last 7 days preceding the date of survey is known as the current weekly status (CWS) of the person.

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