Context: Recently, the Union Minister of Environment, Forest & Climate Change has released the detailed report of Tiger Census on the eve of Global Tiger Day.
About Tiger Census Report 2018
- The detailed report assesses the status of tigers in terms of spatial occupancy and density of individual populations across India.
- The report evaluates the status of habitat corridors connecting major tiger populations and highlights vulnerable areas that require conservation attention for each landscape.
- The report provides information on major carnivores and ungulates regarding their distribution and relative abundance.
Key Highlights of Tiger Census Report 2018
- The western most population of tigers in Rajaji Tiger Reserve along with Corbett Tiger Reserve, Pilibhit Tiger Reserve and Dudhwa Tiger Reservewith an estimated population size of between 531-678 individuals.
- The Valmiki-Sohagibarwa continuum spans across parts of India and Nepal with tiger occupancy on the Indian side with 36-48 individuals.
- Corbett has highest tiger population of 231 followed by Nagarhole and Bandipore reserves in Karnataka with 127 and 126 tigers respectively.
- It showed that out of the 50 tiger reserves in the country, three reserves i.e. Mizoram’s Dampa reserve, West Bengal’s Buxa reserve and Jharkhand’s Palamau reserve, have no tigers left.
- Currently, the tiger population within the reserves is 1,923 (65 per cent of the total tiger population of India).
- In the state-wise distribution of tigers, Madhya Pradesh was found with maximum tigers at 526 followed by Karnataka at 524 and 442 in Uttarakhand.
Uniqueness of the Tiger Census Report 2018
- The abundance index of co-predators and other species has been carried out which hitherto was restricted only to occupancy.
- The sex ratio of tigers in all camera trap sites has been carried out for the first time.
- The anthropogenic effects on tiger population have been elaborated in a detailed manner.
- Tiger abundance within pockets in tiger reserves has been demonstrated for the first time.
- Tigers and other wild life are a kind of soft power India has to show on the international front because India has a culture of saving and preserving the nature, trees and its wild life.
- India is tirelessly working with all 13 tiger range countries towards nurturing the tiger as India is home to 70 percent of world’s tiger population.
- The Ministry of Environment is working on a programme in which efforts would be made to provide water and fodder to animals in the forest itself to deal with the challenge of human-animal conflict which is causing deaths of animals.
- LIDAR based survey technology will be used for the first time which is a method for measuring distances by illuminating the target with laser light and measuring the reflection with a sensor.
- India had embarked upon assessing management interventions through the globally developed Conservation Assured | Tiger Standards (CA|TS) framework, which will now be extended to all fifty tiger reserves across the country.
- In areas where tigers have not been recorded or the population has declined, restoration needs to proceed by improving protection, augmentation of prey, and reintroduction of tigers from an appropriate source.